Developing and validating a scale of consumer brand embarrassment tendencies

Gianfranco Walsh, Arne K. Albrecht, Charles F. Hofacker, Ian Grant, Ikuo Takahashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


A valid brand embarrassment tendency scale seeks to measure individual differences in people's proneness to feel embarrassed in relation to brands. Three studies identify potential items and validate the scale. In Study 1, with a sample of 338 German respondents, factor analyses and comprehensive validation procedures indicate one dimension that represents embarrassment tendency in relation to branded products. In Study 2,with a sample of 231 U.S. participants, a confirmatory factor analysis of the one-dimensional scale reveals its nomological validity. Study 3 applies the scale to two specific brands, with acceptable levels of reliability and validity. The results thus suggest the new scale is reliable, valid, parsimonious, and generalizable in two Western cultures. The brand embarrassment construct is useful for both developing theory and providing advice to marketing practitioners.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1138-1147
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Business Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Mar 1


  • Brand embarrassment
  • Negative emotions
  • Scale development
  • Validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Marketing


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