Development and validation of the hypersomnia-specific beliefs scale

Megumi Hazumi, Wakako Ito, Ryo Okubo, Masataka Wada, Makoto Honda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Objective/Background: Patients with Central hypersomnia, especially Narcolepsy type 1 and Idiopathic Hypersomnia (NT1 and IHS) often have psychological frustration in their daily lives. We aimed to develop the first scale of hypersomnia-specific beliefs (HSB). Patients/methods: We developed the HSB scale consisting of three factors (“aversion toward doze”, “hypersensitivity toward others” reactions about my doze”, and “sense of defeat caused by doze”) with 12 items through interviews to 11 patients with NT1 and IHS. Validity and reliability of the HSB were evaluated cross-sectionally with 166 patients with NT1 and IHS and 375 controls. Simultaneously, scores of patient health questionnaire −2(PHQ-2), mini-Social Phobia Inventory (mini-SPIN), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were obtained. Results: This 3-factor model had enough fitness (χ2 = 60.25, df = 51, p = 0.18, TLI = 0.99, CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.03), Cronbach's α coefficient being 0.90. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.76. Also, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.88) confirmed good discrimination ability. A cut-off score of 38 resulted in a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 75%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that these scales were independently associated with the HSB score; the PHQ-2 (β = 0.24, p = 0.002), mini-SPIN (β = 0.29, p < 0.001) and ESS (β = 0.15, p = 0.048). Conclusions: Our data suggest that the HSB scale measured beliefs in NT1 and IHS patients with good validity, reliability, and discrimination ability. The HSB scale assesses the negative beliefs specific to patents with NT1 and IHS. This scale could be applied to the development of novel psychotherapeutic approach to patients with NT1 and IHS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)256-262
Number of pages7
JournalSleep Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Nov


  • Idiopathic hypersomnia
  • Illness-specific beliefs
  • Narcolepsy
  • Psychometrics
  • Psychosocial factors
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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