Development of In Vitro Endothelialised Stents - Review -

Jitsuro Tsukada, P. Mela, M. Jinzaki, H. Tsukada, T. Schmitz-Rode, F. Vogt

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Endovascular treatment is prevalent as a primary treatment for coronary and peripheral arterial diseases. Although the introduction of drug-eluting stents (DES) dramatically reduced the risk of in-stent restenosis, stent thrombosis persists as an issue. Notwithstanding improvements in newer generation DES, they are yet to address the urgent clinical need to abolish the late stent complications that result from in-stent restenosis and are associated with late thrombus formation. These often lead to acute coronary syndromes with high mortality in coronary artery disease and acute limb ischemia with a high risk of limb amputation in peripheral arterial disease. Recently, a significant amount of research has focused on alternative solutions to improve stent biocompatibility by using tissue engineering. There are two types of tissue engineering endothelialisation methods: in vitro and in vivo. To date, commercially available in vivo endothelialised stents have failed to demonstrate antithrombotic or anti-stenosis efficacy in clinical trials. In contrast, the in vitro endothelialisation methods exhibit the advantage of monitoring cell type and growth prior to implantation, enabling better quality control. The present review discusses tissue-engineered candidate stents constructed by distinct in vitro endothelialisation approaches, with a particular focus on fabrication processes, including cell source selection, stent material composition, stent surface modifications, efficacy and safety evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies, and future directions. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-197
Number of pages19
JournalStem Cell Reviews and Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan


  • Endothelial colony forming cells
  • Endovascular devices
  • Gene-transferred cells
  • Human trophoblastic endovascular progenitor cells
  • Human umbilical vein endothelial cells
  • In vitro endothelialisation
  • Mesenchymal stem cells
  • Stent materials
  • Stent surface modification
  • Tissue-engineered stents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Cancer Research


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