Development of Phosphinate Ligand-Based Low-Affinity Ca2+ Fluorescent Probes and Application to Intracellular Ca2+ Imaging

Rei Kumada, Akihiro Sakama, Yutaka Shindo, Yuzuka Kuronuma, Naoko Iwasawa, Daniel Citterio, Kotaro Oka, Yuki Hiruta

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Divalent metal cations such as calcium ion (Ca2+) and magnesium ion (Mg2+) are indispensable to the regulation of various cellular activities. In this research, we developed the KLCA series utilizing o-aminophenol-N,N-diacetate-O-methylene-methylphosphinate (APDAP) as a target binding site, which was reported recently as a highly free Mg2+-selective ligand. KLCA-301 with orange fluorescence based on a rhodamine fluorophore and KLCA-501 with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence based on a Si-rhodamine fluorophore were synthesized, intended for application to multicolor imaging. The evaluation of the fluorescence response to Ca2+ and Mg2+ of the KLCA series indicated the applicability as low-affinity Ca2+ probes. While KLCA-301 mainly localized in the cytosol in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, KLCA-501 localized to the cytosol and granular organelles in neurons. Comparison of the fluorescence response of KLCA-301 and the high-affinity Ca2+ probe Fluo-4 upon stimulation by glutamate in stained neurons revealed that KLCA-301 could reflect the secondary large rise of intracellular Ca2+, which Fluo-4 could not detect. In addition, KLCA-501 showed a fluorescence response similar to the low-affinity Ca2+ probe Fluo-5N upon stimulation by glutamate in stained neurons, concluding that KLCA-301 and KLCA-501 could be used as low-affinity Ca2+ probes. The KLCA series offers new options for low-affinity Ca2+ probes. Moreover, KLCA-501 achieved simultaneous visualization of the change in Ca2+ and ATP concentrations and also in mitochondrial inner membrane potential in neurons. KLCA-501 is expected to be a strong tool that enables simultaneous multicolor imaging of multiple targets and elucidation of their relationship in cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16683-16691
Number of pages9
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Issue number45
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Nov 14

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry


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