Dry-eye screening by using a functional visual acuity measurement system: The Osaka study

Minako Kaido, Miki Uchino, Norihiko Yokoi, Yuichi Uchino, Murat Dogru, Motoko Kawashima, Aoi Komuro, Yukiko Sonomura, Hiroaki Kato, Shigeru Kinoshita, Kazuo Tsubota

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose. We determined whether functional visual acuity (VA) parameters and a dry eyes (DEs) symptoms questionnaire could predict DEs in a population of visual terminal display (VDT) users. Methods. This prospective study included 491 VDT users from the Osaka Study. Subjects with definite DE, diagnosed with the presence of DE symptoms, tear abnormality (Schirmer test ≤ 5 mm or tear breakup time [TBUT] ≤ 5 seconds), and conjunctivocorneal epithelial damage (total staining score of ≥3 points), or probable DE, diagnosed with the presence of two of them, were assigned to a DE group, and the remainder to a non-DE group. Functional VA was assessed, and DE questionnaires were administered. We assessed whether univariate and discriminant analyses could determine to which group a subject belonged. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed. Results. Of 491 subjects, 320 and 171 were assigned to the DE and non-DE groups, respectively. No significant differences were observed between DE and non-DE groups in Schirmer test value and epithelial damage, but TBUT value (3.1 ± 1.5 vs. 5.9 ± 3.0 seconds). The sensitivity and specificity of single test using functional VA parameters were 59% and 49% in functional VA, 60% and 50% in visual maintenance ratio, and 83% and 30% in frequency of blinking, respectively. According to a discriminant analysis using a combination of functional VA parameters and a DE questionnaire, six variables were selected for the discriminant equation, of which area under the curve (AUC) was 0.735. Sensitivity and specificity of diagnoses predicted by the discriminant equation were 85.9% and 45.6%, respectively. Conclusions. The discriminant equation obtained using functional VA measurement combined with a symptoms questionnaire may suggest the possibility for the first step screening of DE with unstable tear film. Since the questionnaire has an overall poor sensitivity and specificity, further amelioration may be necessary for the actual utilization of this screening tool.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3275-3281
Number of pages7
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2014 May 6
Externally publishedYes


  • Dry eye
  • Functional visual acuity
  • Screening
  • Tear break up time
  • Visual display terminal user

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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