Economic value of PV energy storage using batteries of battery-switch stations

Masaaki Takagi, Yumiko Iwafune, Kenji Yamaji, Hiromi Yamamoto, Kunihiko Okano, Ryoji Hiwatari, Tomohiko Ikeya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Citations (Scopus)


The Japanese government has set a power sector goal for photovoltaic (PV) power usage to reach 53 million kW by 2030. To achieve the large-scale introduction of PV, a large storage capacity, in the form of pumped storage systems or batteries, is needed to store surplus electricity from PV plants. At the same time, in the transport sector, the electric vehicle (EV) is being developed as an environmentally friendly vehicle. To promote the diffusion of EVs, we need infrastructure that can charge EVs in a short time; a battery-switch station is one solution to this problem. This study 1) proposes the use of the station batteries as a countermeasure for surplus electricity from PVs and 2) conducts two relevant analyses. In the first analysis, we calculate the marginal value of a battery and an inverter using the Optimal Generation Mix Model (OPTIGEN). In the second analysis, we set the annual lease fee for the inverter and the battery, and calculate the optimum installed capacity of these devices. The results showed that the marginal value of the inverter/battery decreases with increasing inverter/battery capacity. The optimum installed capacity of the inverter/battery is derived from the intersection of the line of marginal value with the line of the annual lease fee. The stations gain an additional profit by leasing batteries to utilities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6305497
Pages (from-to)164-173
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Battery-switch station
  • economic value
  • electric vehicle
  • photovoltaic (PV)
  • surplus electricity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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