Effect of chronic kidney disease on individual and population medical expenditures in the Japanese population

Aya Higashiyama, Tomonori Okamura, Makoto Watanabe, Yoshitaka Murakami, Hidemi Otsuki, Noriko Adachi, Chiaki Kaneko, Emi Uehara, Akira Okayama, Hirotsugu Ueshima

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22 Citations (Scopus)


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may also lead to an increase in medical expenditures. The effect of CKD on individual and population medical expenditures was examined in a Japanese cohort study. The participants included 4026 Japanese National Health Insurance beneficiaries aged 40-74 years living in one city, who had no history of major CVD. They were classified into three categories according to their glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at the baseline survey, and their total medical expenditures were followed-up for 3 years. The arithmetic and geometric means of the cumulative medical expenditures were calculated for each category. The geometric mean was also expressed after adjusting for several confounding factors using analysis of covariance. The CKD-related medical expenditures attributable to the participants with mild (60 ≤ GFR<90) or moderate (30 ≤ GFR<60) kidney dysfunction were compared with those of participants with normal (GFR < 90) kidney function. There was a negative correlation between the GFR category and the arithmetic and geometric means of personal medical expenditures (adjusted geometric mean: GFR < 90, 167879 yen; 60 ≤GFR <90, 210660 yen; and 30 ≤ GFR<60, 330050 yen). The CKD-related medical expenditures accounted for 11.5 and 6.5% of the total medical expenditures for the participants with mild and moderate kidney dysfunction, respectively. The prevention of mild CKD is very important for containing medical expenditures. Appropriate strategies, such as regular creatinine measurement, are needed for early detection of CKD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)450-454
Number of pages5
JournalHypertension Research
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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