Background: Although extensive substrate modification in addition to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) has been recommended in catheter ablation for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF), recent randomized controlled trials have not demonstrated efficacy of such additional ablations. Methods and study design: The Osaka Cardiovascular Conference will conduct a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial aiming to examine whether PVI alone is non-inferior to PVI plus additional ablation such as linear ablation and/or complex fractionated atrial electrogram ablation in patients with persistent AF. The primary outcome is recurrence of AF documented by scheduled or symptom-driven electrocardiogram tests during a 1-year follow-up period after the index ablation. The key secondary endpoints include all-cause death, occurrence of symptomatic stroke, complications related to the procedure, and quality of life assessment using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. The clinical impact of the presence or absence of AF trigger foci, and their origins in cases with them, on the results of catheter ablation will also be investigated as an exploratory endpoint. A total of 512 patients will be enrolled and followed up to 1 year. Conclusions: The EARNEST-PVI trial is a randomized controlled trial designed to assess whether PVI alone is non-inferior to extended substrate ablation for patients with persistent AF undergoing a first catheter ablation.
- Catheter ablation
- Non-inferiority trial
- Persistent atrial fibrillation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine