Effective 3D open-channel nanostructures of a MgMn2O4positive electrode for rechargeable Mg batteries operated at room temperature

Kazuki Sone, Yoshihiro Hayashi, Toshihiko Mandai, Shunsuke Yagi, Yuya Oaki, Hiroaki Imai

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17 Citations (Scopus)


Room-temperature operations of rechargeable Mg coin-cell batteries have been achieved using a Mg alloy negative electrode and a spinel MgMn2O4(MMO)-positive electrode. The present work focuses on clarifying the effects of the physiochemical properties of the MMO powder including the specific surface area (SBET) and porosity of the positive electrode on Mg battery performances in practical applications. Finally, optimal specific surface area and porosity parameters were obtained that ensured excellent battery performances as a standard coin-cell at room temperature. A typical MMO powder synthesized using a modified sol-gel method with propylene oxide-driven complex polymerization had a largeSBET> 200 m2g−1, and more than 90% porosity with a triple-tiered 3D open-channel network. Here we evaluated the discharge capacity and the cyclability for room-temperature operation as a function ofSBETin a full cell with a Mg negative electrode as well as half cells with a carbon graphite electrode. Irrespective of whether half cells or a full cell was used, the initial discharge capacity was found to depend linearly on theSBETof the porous MMO powder in a Mg tetrakis(hexafluoroisopropyl)borate/triglyme electrolyte with a wide potential window, ΔE> 3.6 V. Eventually, the maximum discharge capacity of 220 mA h g−1was realized at 25 °C in the full cell using the 3D open-channel nanostructure withSBET= 236 m2g−1. The cyclability in the full cell with the Mg alloy negative electrode, however, degraded with the increasingSBET, while no cyclability degradation was observed in the half cell with the carbon electrode. A possible mechanism is discussed regarding passivation of the Mg alloy electrode in discharge/charge cycles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6851-6860
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry A
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar 21

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)


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