Effects of inter-day and intra-day variation on salivary metabolomic profiles

Norishige Kawanishi, Noriyuki Hoshi, Sugimoto Masahiro, Ayame Enomoto, Sana Ota, Miku Kaneko, Tomoyoshi Soga, Masaru Tomita, Katsuhiko Kimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Salivary secretion is an important parameter reflecting the health status of an individual and has been used clinically for the diagnosis of various oral diseases, such as xerostomia. Salivary metabolomic profiling is considered an emerging potential tool for the detection of various systemic diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the quantitative relationship between salivary secretion volume and salivary metabolomic profile. Methods: To evaluate inter- and intra-day variations in salivary secretion, 234 saliva samples were collected three times per day for three days from 13 subjects and analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry was used for non-targeted quantification of water-soluble metabolites. Results: No significant inter- or intra-day variations were observed in salivary secretion volume. No significant inter-day variations were observed in metabolomic patterns. In contrast, significant intra-day variations were observed in salivary metabolomic profiles. The difference was more obvious for stimulated saliva than for unstimulated saliva. These profile changes were independent of salivary secretion volume. Conclusions: Our results indicated that diurnal change had a greater effect on salivary metabolomic profiles than the other factors. Hence, sampling time should be tightly controlled to minimize unexpected bias in the clinical use of salivary metabolomics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-48
Number of pages8
JournalClinica Chimica Acta
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Feb


  • Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry
  • Inter-day variation
  • Intra-day variation
  • Metabolomics
  • Saliva

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical


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