Efficient genetic engineering of human intestinal organoids using electroporation

Masayuki Fujii, Mami Matano, Kosaku Nanki, Toshiro Sato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

223 Citations (Scopus)


Gene modification in untransformed human intestinal cells is an attractive approach for studying gene function in intestinal diseases. However, because of the lack of practical tools, such studies have largely depended upon surrogates, such as gene-engineered mice or immortalized human cell lines. By taking advantage of the recently developed intestinal organoid culture method, we developed a methodology for modulating genes of interest in untransformed human colonic organoids via electroporation of gene vectors. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the generation of intestinal organoids by culture with essential growth factors in a basement membrane matrix. We also describe how to stably integrate genes via the piggyBac transposon, as well as precise genome editing using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Beginning with crypt isolation from a human colon sample, genetically modified organoids can be obtained in 3 weeks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1474-1485
Number of pages12
JournalNature Protocols
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Oct 29

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


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