Electrochemical detection of triamterene in human urine using boron-doped diamond electrodes

Kanako Ishii, Genki Ogata, Yasuaki Einaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Urine is one of the most used biological fluids for screening drug delivery and the resultant metabolites. In sports, the use of diuretics such as triamterene is considered a violation of anti-doping rules and is stipulated to be present at less than 79 nM in urine by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). It is therefore important to develop effective rapid and low-cost tests for this diuretic. Here we apply electrochemical analysis using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes, which have superior properties such as low background current, a wide potential window, and high resistance to deactivation. Since real urine samples show clear oxidation current peaks in the potential range more positive than 0.5 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) due to the presence of bio-components such as protein, uric acid, and ascorbic acid, to detect triamterene effectively, the electrochemical protocol was optimized towards a potential range where the other components have limited effect. Our results show that reduced triamterene exhibits an oxidation peak at 0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PB) and at 0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in pooled human urine. The peak current value increased according to the triamterene concentration. The limit of detection (LOD) was 3.15 nM in the PB and 7.80 nM in pooled human urine. Finally, triamterene detection was attempted in individual urine samples. Triamterene was electrochemically detectable in individual urine samples, excluding urine samples containing an excess amount of ascorbic acid. The limit of detection (LOD) in individual urine samples was determined to be 20.8 nM.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114666
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec 1


  • Boron-doped diamond
  • Electrochemistry
  • Triamterene
  • Urine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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