Emulsifier-free emulsion copolymerization of styrene and acrylamide using an amphoteric initiator

S. J. Fang, K. Fujimoto, S. Kondo, K. Shiraki, H. Kawaguchi

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26 Citations (Scopus)


Emulsifier-free emulsion copolymerization of styrene (St) and acrylamide (AAm) has been investigated in the presence of an amphoteric water-soluble initiator, 2,2'-azobis[N-(2-carboxyethyl)-2-2-methylpropionamidine]hydrate (VA057). The kinetics of polymerization and the colloidal properties of the resulting latices were studied and compared with the cases using ionic initiators. When adopting the amphoteric initiator at pHs lower than 10, stable amphoteric poly (St/AAm) latices, evidenced by the electrophoretic mobility, were prepared directly. Meanwhile, almost the same conversion versus time curves appeared and there were no apparent differences in the final particle sizes for those polymerizations, whereas in the polymerization at pH 10, a much lower rate of copolymerization and a larger size of particles were observed. The surface charge density and the growth rate of latex particles produced with VA057 at pH<10 were comparable to those of the particles with a cationic initiator, 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride, but were apparently lower than those with an anionic initiator, potassium persulfate, when the polymerizations were carried out under corresponding conditions. The number of initiator fragments incorporated onto the particle surfaces was independent of polymerization pH, except for pH 10. The abnormal performance of VA057 at pH 10 was attributed to its degradation due to hydrolysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)864-871
Number of pages8
JournalColloid and Polymer Science
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2000


  • Acrylamide
  • Amphoteric initiator
  • Amphoteric latex
  • Emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization
  • Styrene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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