Enzymatic total synthesis of gibberellin A4 from acetate

Yoshinori Sugai, Sho Miyazaki, Shinichiro Mukai, Isamu Yumoto, Masahiro Natsume, Hiroshi Kawaide

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Natural terpenoids have elaborate structures and various bioactivities, making difficult their synthesis and labeling with isotopes. We report here the enzymatic total synthesis of plant hormone gibberellins (GAs) with recombinant biosynthetic enzymes from stable isotopelabeled acetate. Mevalonate (MVA) is a key intermediate for the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway. 13C-MVA was synthesized from 13C-acetate via acetyl-CoA, using four enzymes or fermentation with a MVA-secreted yeast. The diterpene hydrocarbon, ent-kaurene, was synthesized from 13C-acetate and 13C-MVA with ten and six recombinant enzymes in one test tube, respectively. Four recombinant enzymes, P450 monooxygenases and soluble dioxygenases involved in the GA 4 biosynthesis from ent-kaurene via GA12were prepared in yeast and Escherichia coli. All intermediates and the final product GA 4 were uniformly labeled with 13C without dilution by natural abundance when [U-13C2] acetate was used. The 13C-NMR and MS data for [U-13C20] ent-kaurene confirmed 13C-13C coupling, and no dilution with the 12C atom was observed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)128-135
Number of pages8
JournalBioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Biosynthesis
  • C-NMR
  • Isotope
  • Recombinant enzyme
  • Terpenoid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Organic Chemistry


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