Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) which are risk facters of cardiovascular disease, are increasing global public health problems. Microalbuminuria is an early sign of progressive cardiovascular and renal disease in individuals with or without diabetes. Screening for microalbuminuria and early treatment are recommended for patients with increased cardiovascular and renal risk factors. However, the procedure used to measure urinary albumin is expensive. Alternatively, the measurement of total urinary protein is simple and inexpensive. Thus, we aimed to establish a method that could predict the presence of microalbuminuria by measuring the total protein-to-creatinine ratio. Spot urine samples were obtained from 150 patients with diabetes mellitus, and the total protein-to-creatinine ratio and the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured. There was a significant positive correlation between the protein-to-creatinine ratio and the ACR (r = 0.95). The presence of albuminuria (both micro- and macroalbuminuria) could be predicted from the value of the protein-to-creatinine ratio in more than 90% of patients. A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the protein-to-creatinine ratio had a sensitivity and a specificity of 90.8% and 91.9%, respectively, for the detection of albuminuria and a cutoff value of 0.091 g/g creatinine. These results suggest that screening for microalbuminuria can be replaced by the detection of the protein-to-creatinine ratio, which may be cost-effective for patients with cardiovascular risks as well as for the general population.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology