Evaluation of fabrication parameters for foam stainless steel in directed energy deposition

Yushi Ikeda, Toshihiro Takeuchi, Ryo Koike, Yasuhiro Kakinuma, Masaki Kondo, Yohei Oda, Takanori Mori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Directed energy deposition (DED), a metal additive manufacturing process, has attracted considerable attention in various industries. In the past few decades, several studies have been conducted to enhance the quality of DED-produced parts. Various studies on powder- and laser-based DED have focused on eliminating the residual pores in the fabricated parts, which decrease the mechanical strength. In contrast, this study aims at intentionally increasing the residual pores to produce a porous structure in metals called as foam metal, which realizes lightweight and excellent energy absorption properties. Despite being well-known for their attractive properties, Foam metals are rarely used due to the technical difficulties in their production, which requires special devices and entails considerable cost. The simplicity of the DED process makes it a promising approach to fabricate foam metals because it is easy to foam at the fabrication point by mixing a foaming agent, such as titanium hydride (TiH2), into the material powder. This study evaluates the DED foaming process in stainless steel alloys by changing the particle size of the TiH2 powder and the scanning path to obtain the optimal conditions for enhancing the pore dispersion. The experimental results show that, when the particle size of the foaming agent is small, the number of pores and their distribution increases. Additionally, the mechanical properties are also evaluated through compression experiments, and the energy absorption ratio is found to be higher when a smaller foaming agent is used.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems and Manufacturing
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Directed energy deposition
  • Foam metal
  • Stainless steel alloy
  • Titanium hydride

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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