Background: Since sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have a pleiotropic antiatherogenic effect, they are expected to attenuate the progression of atherosclerosis. However, whether SGLT2 inhibitors affect the tissue characteristics of the human arterial wall remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of tofogliflozin, a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, on the tissue characteristics of the human arterial wall in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients without apparent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: The present study was a post hoc analysis based on data obtained from the Using Tofogliflozin for Possible Better Intervention against Atherosclerosis for Type 2 Diabetes Patients (UTOPIA) trial, which was a multicenter prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint study conducted to evaluate the efficacy of tofogliflozin in preventing the progression of atherosclerosis in patients with T2DM. We evaluated the longitudinal change in the ultrasonic tissue characteristics of the carotid wall using gray-scale median (GSM), an established index of ultrasonic tissue characteristics. The right and left intima-medial areas were delineated, and the GSM values were evaluated (right GSM-CCA and left GSM-CCA). The average values of the right and left carotid arteries were defined as “mean GSM-CCA value.” Results: In a mixed-effects model for repeated measures, mean GSM-CCA, along with the right and left GSM-CCA values, did not significantly change in either the tofogliflozin (n = 168) or conventional treatment group (n = 169). In addition, the tofogliflozin and conventional treatment groups did not significantly differ regarding the change of the mean GSM-CCA (mean difference [95% CI] − 1.24[− 3.87, 1.38], P = 0.35), along with the right (mean difference [95% CI] − 2.33[− 5.70, 1.05], P = 0.18) and the left GSM-CCA (mean difference [95% CI] − 0.29 [− 3.53, 2.95], P = 0.86) values. Similar findings were obtained even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and/or the administration of drugs at baseline. Conclusions: The tissue characteristics of the carotid arterial wall did not change in either the tofogliflozin or conventional treatment group during the 104-week treatment period, and there was no significant difference between the treatment groups. Clinical trial registration UMIN000017607 (https://www.umin.ac.jp/icdr/index.html).
- Carotid artery
- SGLT2 inhibitor
- Tissue characteristics
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine