Expanding the concept of the VFR market: Excavating ‘hidden VFR travellers’

Sho Kashiwagi, Hayato Nagai, Tomoyuki Furutani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Visiting friends and relatives (VFR) travellers have often been categorised based on their purpose of travel and their use of accommodations. This study focuses on the non-VFR category defined by these two factors and on the investigation of ‘hidden VFR travellers (HVFRs)’ in the non-VFR category. A total of 500 Japanese participants who met their friends or relatives in five major English-speaking destinations completed an online survey. Using the two criteria, 164 were categorised as VFRs, whereas the others were grouped into the non-VFR category. Among the non-VFR travellers, there was a group that shared similar characteristics with the VFR travellers. The result implies that there are HVFRs in the non-VFR category. To expand the current understanding and concept of VFR travellers, this study proposes an additional criterion for categorising VFR, namely, the influence of VFR hosts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100610
JournalTourism Management Perspectives
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan


  • Accommodation
  • Behaviour
  • Host
  • Japanese traveller
  • Travel purpose
  • VFR market

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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