"Expectations deficit in EU-Japan relations: Why the relationship cannot flourish

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


It is often argued in the study of European Foreign Policy (EFP) that there is a 'capability-expectations gap' in European Union (EU) foreign relations, which normally means the gap between excessive expectations toward the EU from abroad and the insufficient capability of the EU that cannot match the expectations. But in EU-Japan relations, a reverse gap that this article calls 'expectations deficit' can often be observed. It is a result of Japan's low expectations of Europe, which remain largely unchanged despite the growing weight and influence of the EU as an international actor. Simply put, Tokyo has yet to regard the EU to be an international (political) actor. This article analyzes the structure that generates the expectations deficit--underestimation of Europe in Japan. It argues that the existence of the 'expectations deficit' prevents EU-Japan relations from flourishing.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAsian Economic and Political Developments
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)9781611224702
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Feb 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)


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