Experiment to distinguish two fumaroles consistently emanating infrasound at Kirishima Iwo-Yama

Kazuya Yamakawa, Mie Ichihara, Dan Muramatsu, Takeshi Matsushima, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Ruka Wada, Isao Shimoyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the infrasonic observation of a fumarolic field, distinguishing multiple fumarolic sources is challenging. The array technique effectively estimates the source locations and identifies the target signal from other signals and noise. We conducted an experiment at Kirishima Iwo-Yama, Japan, where two active fumarolic areas were separated by ~ 450 m. A three-element array with an aperture of ~ 20 m was installed between the two fumarolic areas. In addition, a single microphone was installed near one of the fumaroles. The array combined with the waveform correlation analysis estimated the most prominent source but failed to estimate the other weak source. A joint analysis of the array and the single microphone effectively resolved the two sources. It was also confirmed that newly developed power-saving MEMS microphones were useful for observing the fumaroles. This paper presents the instrumentation and analytical method that would be beneficial for monitoring volcanoes that have multiple hydrothermally active vents. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Article number26
JournalEarth, Planets and Space
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Dec


  • Array observation
  • Fumarole
  • Infrasound
  • Volcano

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology
  • Space and Planetary Science


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