Expertise and position of line of sight in golf putting

Kiyoshi Naito, Takaaki Kato, Tadahiko Fukuda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to clarify golfers' scanning patterns while putting through direct measurement of their eye movements. Each of the 17 subjects (3 experts, 3 intermediates, 11 beginners) performed 10 consecutive putts on a practice mat, from a position 2 m from the hole. The analysis of their eye-movements indicated differences among these groups. The intermediates and beginners had longer fixation durations on the ball than the experts. The beginners exhibited a range of behaviors among the trials, some of which did not include any fixations on the ball. Experts held their eyes steady but did not fixate on the ball. These results suggested that experts may have relied on a mental image of the ball; in contrast, the intermediates and some of the beginners relied on visual data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-170
Number of pages8
JournalPerceptual and Motor Skills
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Aug

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Sensory Systems


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