Exploring a Dynamic Change of Muscle Perception in VR, Based on Muscle Electrical Activity and/or Joint Angle

Edouard Ferrand, Adrien Verhulst, Masahiko Inami, Maki Sugimoto

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)


We display a virtual avatar changing its biceps appearance to fit the user's biceps contraction. The avatar's biceps changes its size and color based on either: (EMG) the biceps activity (recorded with a electromyography [EMG] sensor); or (ANG) the elbow angle; or (EMG + ANG) the biceps activity and elbow angle. The users also wear an ad hoc haptic device around their biceps to give the illusion of stronger biceps contractions. In the Virtual Environment, the participants (N=10) look at their right biceps and do elbow flexion. They rate EMG, ANG and EMG + ANG (with and without the haptic device) along Body Ownership and Agency. We found that ANG (without the haptic device) was rated noticeably lower on the Agency than EMG and EMG + ANG (both without the haptic device). It is likely better to change the appearance of a muscle using the user's muscle contraction rather than the user's movement when considering the user's muscle ownership and agency. The addition of the ad hoc haptic device appeared to not affect the Sense of Embodiment.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - AHs 2021
Subtitle of host publicationAugmented Humans Conference 2021
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages3
ISBN (Electronic)9781450384285
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Feb 22
Event2021 Augmented Humans Conference, AHs 2021 - Rovaniemi, Finland
Duration: 2021 Feb 222021 Feb 24

Publication series

NameACM International Conference Proceeding Series


Conference2021 Augmented Humans Conference, AHs 2021


  • EMG
  • Embodiment
  • Physical Activity
  • Virtual Reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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