Exploring Patterns of Self-control and the Relationship with Home-rearing Environment Among Preschoolers

Yantong Zhu, Dandan Jiao, Emiko Tanaka, Etsuko Tomisaki, Taeko Watanabe, Yuko Sawada, Xiang Li, Zhu Zhu, Ammara Ajmal, Tokie Anme

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Home-rearing environment (HRE) at an early age has a longitudinal effect on the development of children’s self-control. Some evidence has articulated this relationship; however, few studies have addressed heterogeneous patterns in self-control. This study aimed to identify a typology of self-control among preschoolers and examine its relationship with HRE. A total of 430 children from the Child Care Cohort study in Japan were included to assess their HRE and self-control over 2 years. Latent class analysis was carried out to identify self-control patterns, and the relationship between HRE and different classes was explored using multinomial regression analyses. Three latent classes were found, characterized as high, moderate, and low levels. In addition, two HRE items were associated with preschoolers’ self-control over 2 years. Children who often met peers of a similar age and whose parents often received others’ help to care for them were more likely to have a higher level of self-control. This study indicated different patterns of self-control among preschoolers and highlighted the significance of HRE, particularly in peer involvement and co-parenting, in helping children develop high self-control.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEarly Childhood Education Journal
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Home-rearing environment
  • Latent class analysis
  • Preschooler
  • Self-control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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