Extent and appraisal of COVID-19 pandemic, risk governance, and resilience in Pakistan

Mahnoor Rafiq, Muhammad Barkat Ali Khan, Atta Ur Rahman, Muhammad Farhan Ul Moazzam, Rajib Shaw

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


A novel, highly contagious coronavirus (COVID-19) originated in the city of Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and rapidly spread throughout the globe. In February 2020, the first case of COVID-19 in Pakistan was reported in the Sindh province after first spreading over most of the country. The Sindh province had the most confirmed COVID-19 cases at that time. In response to the pandemic, the government of Pakistan allocated PKR 1.13 trillion for rescue and assistance to businesses and needy communities. However, Pakistan is considered a developing economy, but the government took all the necessary steps to ensure preventive measures were put in place against the deadly pandemic. The government has taken preventive measures, including proper quarantine facilities, temporary hospitals, and smart lockdowns to control COVID-19 transmission. Despite these preventive steps, challenges remained, including standard operating procedures, lapses in handling the emergency, and horizontal coordination among government line agencies. In parallel, Pakistan’s diverse topography and unplanned built-up areas caused communication issues, while public attitudes further aggravated the pandemic. The conclusion is that COVID-19 posed a challenge for Pakistan’s pandemic response in providing treatment and mitigating infections.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPandemic Risk, Response, and Resilience
Subtitle of host publicationCOVID-19 Responses in Cities around the World
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9780323992770
ISBN (Print)9780323994361
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan 1


  • COVID-19
  • Pakistan
  • Pandemic
  • Resilience
  • Risk

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)


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