Factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers and prognosis of breakthrough infection in hemodialysis patients

Masataro Toda, Ayumi Yoshifuji, Kan Kikuchi, Masayoshi Koinuma, Motoaki Komatsu, Kentaro Fujii, Ai Kato, Takahide Kikuchi, Atsushi Nakazawa, Munekazu Ryuzaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The mortality rate of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is extremely high in hemodialysis patients (HDP). These patients also develop lower antibody titers after vaccination. Therefore, factors associated with antibody titers and vaccine efficacy in HDP with breakthrough infection need to be investigated. Methods: We measured anti-S1 antibody titers in HDP (n = 104) and controls (n = 35), evaluating the influence of background on HDP by multivariable regression analysis. We classified 26 HDP patients admitted with COVID-19 into the unvaccinated (n = 15) and breakthrough infection group (n = 11), performing between-group comparisons of laboratory findings and prognosis. Vaccinated COVID-19 patients were classified into HDP and non-HDP controls, and compared the relationship between antibody titer and severity, and the prognosis of breakthrough infection. Results: The antibody titer was significantly lower in the HDP group than in the control group. Among HDP, age and smoking history were significantly independent factors associated with antibody titer. The breakthrough infection group had significantly better laboratory findings (KL-6 and LDH), severity, and hospitalization period than the unvaccinated group even if antibody titers were lower than the known threshold for neutralization (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in prognosis between the HDP and non-HDP with breakthrough infection. Severity of COVID-19 tended to be higher with lower antibody titer in non-HDP, but not in HDP. Conclusion: Vaccines improved the severity of COVID-19 and hospitalization period of breakthrough infection in HDP, although HDP, especially in elderly smokers had lower antibody titers than control. There was no significant association between antibody titer and severity in HDP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)571-580
Number of pages10
JournalClinical and experimental nephrology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jun
Externally publishedYes


  • Antibody titer
  • Breakthrough infection
  • COVID-19
  • Hemodialysis
  • Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Nephrology
  • Physiology (medical)


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