Fine Particle Bombardment (FPB) treatment is commercially applied in various industries because of its beneficial effect to improve fatigue properties of metallic materials. The increase of fatigue strength of metals achieved by this process is due to a generation of compressive residual stress on their surfaces. In this study we investigated the effects of the FPB treatment on the fatigue properties of Ti-4.5Al-3V-2Fe-2Mo titanium alloy, Al6061 aluminum alloy and type304 austenitic stainless steel by carrying out rotational bending fatigue tests. In the FPB treated titanium alloy, fatigue strength was higher than that of the untreated one. This was due to the beneficial effects of surface hardening. In the case of the aluminum alloy, little increase of surface hardness and compressive residual stress was induced by the FPB treatment, which resulted in no improvement of the fatigue strength. Despite the higher hardness and compressive residual stress, the increase in fatigue strength of stainless steel was lower than that of the titanium alloy. This was because the surface hardness of the stainless steel was increased by a cyclic loading alone, due to a high work hardening factor. These results imply that the effects of the FPB treatment on the improvement of fatigue properties depend on the work hardening factor of treated materials.