We present and analyze a gauge-invariant quantum theory of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with dust. We construct the reduced phase space spanned by gauge-invariant quantities by using the so-called relational formalism at the classical level. The reduced phase space thereby obtained can be quantized in the same manner as an ordinary mechanical system. We carry out the quantization and obtain the Schrödinger equation. This quantization procedure realizes a possible resolution to the problem of time and observables in canonical quantum gravity. We analyze the classical initial singularity of the theory by evolving a wave packet backward in time and evaluating the expectation value of the scale factor. It is shown that the initial singularity of the Universe is avoided by the quantum gravitational effects.
|Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
|Published - 2009 Nov 6
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)