Gender differences in genetic and environmental etiology of gender role personality (BSRI)

Shoko Sasaki, Shinji Yamagata, Chizuru Shikishima, Koken Ozaki, Juko Ando

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This study investigated the possible effects of genetic and environmental gender differences in effect on individual differences by using the Bern Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) with twins. A sex/gender-limitation analysis, a behavior genetics methodology was used to the following: (a) effects of gender-specific genes, (b) gender differences in quantitative genetic effects, (c) effects of gender-specific shared environment, (d) gender differences of quantitative shared environment, and (e) gender differences of quantitative nonshared environment. Participants were adolescent and adult twins, including 111 identical male pairs, 241 identical female pairs, 36 fraternal male pairs, 65 fraternal female pairs, and 58 opposite-gender pairs. The results indicated that although masculinity and femininity were explained by genetic factors to some extent, there were no significant gender differences in the genetic factors. Moreover, because our data did not support a model which explained gender differences in the effects of specific common environment factors, no evidence was found to support the prenatal hormonal hypothesis or the existence of parenting which encouraged children's gender role personality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)330-338
Number of pages9
JournalShinrigaku Kenkyu
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Oct


  • Behavior genetic
  • Bern Sex Role Inventory (BSRI)
  • Gender
  • Sex
  • Twin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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