Gene variants in PPARD and PPARGC1A are associated with timing of natural menopause in the general Japanese population

Hirokazu Uemura, Mineyoshi Hiyoshi, Kokichi Arisawa, Miwa Yamaguchi, Mariko Naito, Sayo Kawai, Nobuyuki Hamajima, Keitaro Matsuo, Naoto Taguchi, Naoyuki Takashima, Sadao Suzuki, Kazuyo Hirasada, Haruo Mikami, Keizo Ohnaka, Aya Yoshikawa, Michiaki Kubo, Hideo Tanaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Timing of menopause affects postmenopausal health risks. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-related genes (PPARD, PPARG, and PPARGC1A) and environmental factors with timing of natural menopause among the general Japanese population. Study design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1758 women aged 40-69 years who were enrolled in the baseline surveys of the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. Main outcome measures: Associations of timing of natural menopause with its probable covariates and with target gene variants were evaluated by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Lower body mass index and later age at menarche were significantly associated with earlier natural menopause. Women with minor alleles at T-48444C in PPARD showed a significantly higher adjusted hazard ratio of 1.57 (95% confidence interval: 1.18-2.10) for earlier natural menopause. In contrast, women with minor alleles at Thr394Thr in PPARGC1A showed a significantly lower adjusted hazard ratio of 0.86 (0.76-0.97) for earlier natural menopause. These associations did not substantially alter when re-analyzed after excluding the subjects who self-reported a history of diabetes or the subjects whose age was more than 65 years. Conclusions: Gene variants in PPARD and PPARGC1A might be associated with timing of natural menopause, probably through direct actions on the ovaries, among the general Japanese population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369-375
Number of pages7
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Apr
Externally publishedYes


  • Cross-sectional study
  • PPAR delta
  • PPAR gamma coactivator 1α
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms
  • Timing of natural menopause

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


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