Genetic and environmental etiology of effortful control

Shinji Yamagata, Yusuke Takahashi, Nobuhiko Kijima, Hiroko Maekawa, Yutaka Ono, Juko Ando

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


We examined whether effortful control (EC), a temperament proposed by Rothbart and Bates (1998), has genetically coherent structure. A self-report measure of EC was administered to 450 Japanese twins (151 males and 299 females, ages 17 to 32 years) including 152 monozygotic and 73 dizygotic pairs. Univariate genetic analysis revealed that AE model fit best for the total EC as well as its subscales. The heritability estimate for total EC was 49%, and the estimates for subscales ranged between 32% and 45%. Multivariate genetic analysis revealed that the subscales of EC were genetically correlated to a high degree and environmentally correlated to a moderate degree. These results suggest that EC has substantial genetic basis and genetically coherent structure, supporting the validity of the construct. The implications to molecular genetic study and study of psychopathology were discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)300-306
Number of pages7
JournalTwin Research and Human Genetics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Aug

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Genetics(clinical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Genetic and environmental etiology of effortful control'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this