Genetic and environmental structure of Cloninger's temperament and character dimensions

Juko Ando, Atsunobu Suzuki, Shinji Yamagata, Nobuhiko Kijima, Hiroko Maekawa, Yutaka Ono, Kerry L. Jang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

110 Citations (Scopus)


The multivariate genetic and environmental structure of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was investigated in a sample of 617 pairs of adolescent and young adult twins from Japan. Additive genetic factors accounted for 22% to 49% of the variability on all TCI temperament scales. Although the theory predicts lower heritability for the character scales, all character subscales had a substantial genetic contribution, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for the remainder. Multivariate genetic analyses showed that several subscales used to define one dimension shared a common genetic basis with subscales defining others. Using the degree of shared genetic influence as the basis to rearrange the TCI subscales into new dimensions, it was possible to create genetically independent scales. The implications for personality measurement, theory, and molecular genetic research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)379-393
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Personality Disorders
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Aug

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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