Group Formation for Cooperative Highway Merging Considering Undetected Vehicles in Mixed Traffic

Sho Kato, Masashi Kunibe, Rei Yamazaki, Hiroshi Shigeno

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) have potential to improve the traffic efficiency near the highway on-ramps by sharing their merging times through wireless communication. For the traffic efficiency and vehicle safety, it has been the technical challenge to determine the merging times without collision of vehicles merging from different roads. Especially in the mixed traffic of CAVs and human-driven vehicles (hereinafter called non-CAVs), CAVs cannot detect all the non-CAVs even by their sensors. Therefore, it is necessary to determine CAVs' merging times for preventing the undetected non-CAVs from colliding with other vehicles. In this paper, we propose a group-based CAVs control method considering undetected non-CAVs in mixed traffic. The main idea of the proposed method is that it indirectly controls the undetected non-CAVs by CAVs. Specifically, the method forms vehicle groups each of which consists of a leading CAV and following non-CAVs. The method assigns merging times to the leading CAVs such that different groups do not merge onto the main road simultaneously. As a result, the undetected non-CAVs in a group do not collide with vehicles in the other groups. Simulation results show that the proposed method mitigates stop-and-go driving near the merging zone and improves outflow traffic.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2021 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, VNC 2021
EditorsFrank Kargl, Onur Altintas, Christoph Sommer, Takamasa Higuchi, Florian Klingler
PublisherIEEE Computer Society
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781665444507
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event13th IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, VNC 2021 - Virtual, Online, Germany
Duration: 2021 Nov 102021 Nov 12

Publication series

NameIEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, VNC
ISSN (Print)2157-9857
ISSN (Electronic)2157-9865


Conference13th IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, VNC 2021
CityVirtual, Online


  • connected and automated vehicle (CAV)
  • cooperative control
  • highway merging
  • mixed traffic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Transportation


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