Hemiacetal-less rapamycin derivatives designed and produced by genetic engineering of a type I polyketide synthase

Kei Kudo, Takehiro Nishimura, Ikuko Kozone, Junko Hashimoto, Noritaka Kagaya, Hikaru Suenaga, Haruo Ikeda, Kazuo Shin-ya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Engineering polyketide synthases is one of the most promising ways of producing a variety of polyketide derivatives. Exploring the undiscovered chemical space of this medicinally important class of middle molecular weight natural products will aid in the development of improved drugs in the future. In previous work, we established methodology designated ‘module editing’ to precisely manipulate polyketide synthase genes cloned in a bacterial artificial chromosome. Here, in the course of investigating the engineering capacity of the rapamycin PKS, novel rapamycin derivatives 1–4, which lack the hemiacetal moiety, were produced through the heterologous expression of engineered variants of the rapamycin PKS. Three kinds of module deletions in the polyketide synthase RapC were designed, and the genetically engineered vectors were prepared by the in vitro module editing technique. Streptomyces avermitilis SUKA34 transformed with these edited PKSs produced new rapamycin derivatives. The planar structures of 1–4 established based on 1D and 2D NMR, ESI–TOF–MS and UV spectra revealed that 2 and 3 had skeletons well-matched to the designs, but 1 and 4 did not. The observations provide important insights into the mechanisms of the later steps of rapamycin skeletal formation as well as the ketone-forming oxygenase RapJ.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9944
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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