High-resolution 3T MR imaging of the triangular fibrocartilage complex

Donald V. von Borstel, Michael Wang, Kirstin Small, Taiki Nozaki, Hiroshi Yoshioka

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


This study is intended as a review of 3Tesla (T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). The recent advances in MR imaging, which includes high field strength magnets, multi-channel coils, and isotropic 3-dimensional (3D) sequences have enabled the visualization of precise TFCC anatomy with high spatial and contrast resolution. In addition to the routine wrist protocol, there are specific techniques used to optimize 3T imaging of the wrist; including driven equilibrium sequence (DRIVE), parallel imaging, and 3D imaging. The coil choice for 3T imaging of the wrist depends on a number of variables, and the proper coil design selection is critical for high-resolution wrist imaging with high signal and contrast-to-noise ratio. The TFCC is a complex structure and is composed of the articular disc (disc proper), the triangular ligament, the dorsal and volar radioulnar ligaments, the meniscus homologue, the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL), the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon sheath, and the ulnolunate and ulnotriquetral ligaments. The Palmer classification categorizes TFCC lesions as traumatic (type 1) or degenerative (type 2). In this review article, we present clinical high-resolution MR images of normal TFCC anatomy and TFCC injuries with this classification system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-15
Number of pages13
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • High-resolution MRI
  • Isotropic 3D imaging
  • Triangular fibrocartilage complex
  • Wrist MRI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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