How Could and Should “Maai”, Empathetic Relation from Second-Person’s Viewpoint, Be Studied?

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“Maai” is a concept that represents a relation holding spatially and temporarily among more than two people or things, at least one of which is a human being. Forming a state of “maai” means to read the intentions or movements of the other, make adjustment of physical and/or mental distance, and organize a proper way of being there physically and mentally. In the modern era in which people make free access to information beyond communities and countries and foster varieties of sense of values, the phenomena of “maai” will have growing concerns as one of the most difficult issues in communication. In this paper, we will start raising typical examples from different domains, and decipher how “maai” is being formed and holds. Then, we will make a hypothesis that feeling “energy” emitted by the opponent and one’s own body, which is empathetic cognition, from the first and second-person’s viewpoints, to associate superficial moves observable objectively with inner feelings and proprioceptive sensations, is the key to form one’s “maai”. Further, we will argue the limitation of the methodology of modern science, and raise discussions on a new methodology in which dealing with data in the subjective world of cognition beyond movements and aspects observable objectively is permitted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)307-323
Number of pages17
JournalNew Generation Computing
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Sept 1


  • Embodied meta-cognition
  • Empathy
  • Maai
  • Proprioceptive sensation
  • Scientific methodology
  • Second-person’s viewpoint
  • Subjectivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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