How Quickly Should a Communication Robot Respond? Delaying Strategies and Habituation Effects

Toshiyuki Shiwa, Takayuki Kanda, Michita Imai, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Norihiro Hagita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports a study about system response time (SRT) in communication robots that utilize human-like social features, such as anthropomorphic appearance and conversation in natural language. Our research purpose is to establish SRT design guidelines in communication robots. The first experiment observed user preferences toward different SRTs in interactions with a robot which indicated that user SRT preferences in a communication robot are peak at one-second SRT. Based on the results of the first experiment, we conducted two further SRT investigations. One is for delaying strategy and we propose conversational filler which is a behavior that notifies listeners that the robot intends to respond. The other is for habituation effect to see the trend of the first experiment's result will remain or not when using robots in daily life. In both investigations, we addressed how the delaying strategy and the habituation effect affect on SRT preferences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-155
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Social Robotics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Apr


  • Communication robots
  • Conversational filler
  • Delaying strategy
  • Habituation effect
  • System response time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science


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