Human blood metabolite timetable indicates internal body time

Takeya Kasukawa, Masahiro Sugimoto, Akiko Hida, Yoichi Minami, Masayo Mori, Sato Honma, Ken Ichi Honma, Kazuo Mishima, Tomoyoshi Soga, Hiroki R. Ueda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

180 Citations (Scopus)


A convenient way to estimate internal body time (BT) is essential for chronotherapy and time-restricted feeding, both of which use body-time information to maximize potency and minimize toxicity during drug administration and feeding, respectively. Previously, we proposed a molecular timetable based on circadian-oscillating substances in multiple mouse organs or blood to estimate internal body time from samples taken at only a few time points. Here we applied this molecular-timetable concept to estimate and evaluate internal body time in humans. We constructed a 1.5-d reference timetable of oscillating metabolites in human blood samples with 2-h sampling frequency while simultaneously controlling for the confounding effects of activity level, light, temperature, sleep, and food intake. By using this metabolite timetable as a reference, we accurately determined internal body time within 3 h from just two anti-phase blood samples. Our minimally invasive, molecular-timetable method with human blood enables highly optimized and personalized medicine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15036-15041
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number37
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Sept 11


  • Circadian rhythm
  • Diagnostic tool
  • Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry
  • Metabolomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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