Human MCAF Gene Transfer Enhances the Metastatic Capacity of a Mouse Cachectic Adenocarcinoma Cell Line in Vivo

Emi Nakashima, Naofumi Mukaida, Yuri Kubota, Kouji Kuno, Kazuo Yasumoto, Fujio Ichimura, Isao Nakanishi, Masayuki Miyasaka, Kouji Matsushima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose. To evaluate the effect of monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF/MCP-1/JE) on tumor progression and metastasis. Methods. Cachexia-inducing adenocarcinoma cells (cell line colon 26, clone 20) were transfected with either a control plasmid or MCAF expression vector. Spontaneous lung metastases were determined in mouse. Results. The production of MCAF reached 0.4 ng/ml in vitro when transfectant cells were cultured at a cell density of 5 × 104 cells/ml for 3 days. Transfection of MCAF expression vector did not affect the growth rate in vitro. Also, after MCAF-transfection, the size of tumors after intra-footpad inoculation was similar to that of the parental cells. When the primary tumors were resected on the 10th day after inoculation, the incidence of spontaneous lung metastasis was less than 20% in both cells. The number of endothelial cells in the primary tumor rapidly increased from the 10th to the 14th day after inoculation, as revealed by immunohistochemical staining. In accordance with enhanced angiogenesis, the incidence rates of spontaneous metastasis increased when the primary tumors were resected on the 14th day after inoculation. Moreover, the spontaneous lung metastases were augmented in the animals injected with MCAF-transfectants compared to those injected with parental cells with a concomitant increase of angiogenesis. Conclusions. These results suggest that MCAF may augment the metastatic potential by modulating tumor associated angiogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1598-1604
Number of pages7
JournalPharmaceutical Research: An Official Journal of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1995 Nov
Externally publishedYes


  • chemokine
  • colon 26
  • gene transfer
  • metastasis
  • monocyte chemotactic and activating factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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