Hypertension and insulin resistance: Role of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor γ

Hiroshi Itoh, Doi Kentaro, Tokuji Tanaka, Yasutomo Fukunaga, Kiminori Hosoda, Gen Inoue, Haruhiko Nishimura, Yasunao Yoshimasa, Yukio Yamori, Kazuwa Nakao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Citations (Scopus)


1. Insulin resistance has been highlighted as a common causal factor for hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity, all of which are recognized to occur simultaneously, and a distinct clinical entity is defined as 'multiple risk factor syndrome'. 2. Recently, a new class of antidiabetic agents, thiazolidinediones (TZD) has been developed and has been shown to improve insulin resistance by binding and activating a nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ. 3. cDNA of rat PPARγ1 and γ2 were cloned and gene regulation of PPARγ in rat mature adipocytes was examined. Hydrogen peroxide, an oxygen radical, which is recognized to be the common intracellular signal for multiple risk factors, potently down-regulated PPARγ mRNA expression in rat mature adipocytes. 4. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which is considered to play a role in obesity-induced non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and to augment oxidative stress, also suppressed PPARγ expression. 5. Thiazolidinediones dose-dependently recovered TNF-α-induced down-regulation of PPARγ mRNA expression. 6. The modulation of PPARγ expression by TZD can be one mechanism for the improvement of insulin resistance by TZD. 7. Vascular tone and remodelling are controlled by several vasoactive autocrine/paracrine factors produced by endothelial cells in response to several vascular injury stimuli, including hypertension. The PPARγ gene transcript was detected in cultured endothelial cells. 8. The administration of TZD stimulated the endothelial secretion of type-C natriuretic peptide, which is one of the natriuretic peptide family and is demonstrated by us to act as a novel endothelium-derived relaxing peptide. 9. Concomitantly, TZD significantly suppressed the secretion of endothelin, a potent endothelium-derived vasoconstricting peptide. 10. Thiazolidinediones can affect vascular tone and growth by modulating the production of endothelium-derived vasoactive substances to influence occurrence and progression of hypertension and atherosclerosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)558-560
Number of pages3
JournalClinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1999 Jul 14
Externally publishedYes


  • Adipocytes
  • Endothelial cells
  • Endothelin
  • Insulin resistance
  • Natriuretic peptides
  • Oxidative stress
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ
  • Risk factor
  • Syndrome X
  • Thiazolidinediones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Pharmacology
  • Physiology (medical)


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