Identification and application of bioactive compounds from garcinia xanthochymus hook. For weed management

Md Mahfuzur Rob, Kawsar Hossen, Mst Rokeya Khatun, Keitaro Iwasaki, Arihiro Iwasaki, Kiyotake Suenaga, Hisashi Kato-Noguchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The allelopathic potential of plant species and their related compounds has been increas-ingly reported to be biological tools for weed control. The allelopathic potential of Garcinia xantho-chymus was assessed against several test plant species: lettuce, rapeseed, Italian ryegrass, and timo-thy. The extracts of G. xanthochymus leaves significantly inhibited all the test plants in a concentra-tion-and species-specific manner. Therefore, to identify the specific compounds involved in the allelopathic activity of the G. xanthochymus extracts, assay-guided purification was carried out and two allelopathic compounds were isolated and identified as methyl phloretate {3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) propionic acid methyl ester} and vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid). Both of the substances significantly arrested the cress and timothy seedlings growth. I50 values (concentra-tions required for 50% inhibition) for shoots and roots growth of the cress and timothy were 113.6– 104.6 and 53.3–40.5 μM, respectively, for methyl phloretate, and 331.6–314.7 and 118.8–107.4 μM, respectively, for vanillic acid, which implied that methyl phloretate was close to 3-and 2-fold more effective than vanillic acid against cress and timothy, respectively. This report is the first on the presence of methyl phloretate in a plant and its phytotoxic property. These observations suggest that methyl phloretate and vanillic acid might participate in the phytotoxicity of G. xanthochymus extract.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2264
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar 1


  • Allelopathy
  • Garcinia xanthochymus
  • Growth inhibitory compounds
  • Methyl phloretate
  • Vanillic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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