Impact of Triggering Events on Outcomes of Acute Heart Failure

Tokyo CCU Network Scientific Committee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The onset of acute heart failure is known to be associated with increased physical activity and other specific behaviors that can trigger hemodynamic deterioration. This analysis aimed to describe the distribution of triggers in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure, and investigate their effects on in-hospital outcomes. Methods: Consecutive patients hospitalized for acute heart failure between 2010 and 2014 were registered in a multicenter data registration system (72 institutions within Tokyo, Japan). Baseline demographics and in-hospital mortality were extracted from 17,473 patients. Patients with a trigger were grouped based on their triggering event: those with onset during (a) physical activity; (b) sleeping; (c) eating or watching television; (d) bathing or excretion (use of restrooms); and (e) engaging in other activities. These patients were compared with patients without identifiable triggers. Multiple imputation was used for missing data. Results: Patients were predominantly men (57.1%), with a mean age of 76.0 ± 13.0 years; a triggering event was present in 49.1%. No significant difference in baseline characteristics was noted between groups except for younger age, higher blood pressure, and prevalence of signs of congestion in the trigger-positive group. In-hospital mortality rate was 7.9%. Presence of triggers was positively associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.90; P =.0003). In a delta-adjusted pattern mixture model, the effect of a triggering event on in-hospital mortality remained consistently significant. Conclusion: Triggering events for acute heart failure can provide additional information for risk prediction. Efforts to identify the triggers should be made to classify patients according to risk group.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)156-164.e2
JournalAmerican Journal of Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Feb


  • Acute heart failure
  • Multiple imputation
  • Physical activity
  • Prognosis
  • Trigger

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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