Improved absorption of itraconazole tablet by co-administration with lemon beverages in a lung transplant recipient: A case report

Keisuke Umemura, Yoshiki Katada, Shunsaku Nakagawa, Mitsuhiro Sugimoto, Katsuyuki Matsumura, Atsushi Yonezawa, Miki Nagao, Akihiro Ohsumi, Hiroshi Date, Tomohiro Terada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


After lung transplantation, itraconazole (ITCZ) is used as a prophylaxis for aspergillosis. ITCZ is a weak base with high lipophilicity, and the dissolution and absorption of ITCZ tablets and capsules are pH dependent. Therefore, ITCZ may not achieve sufficient serum concentrations in patients with higher gastric pH because of its poor bioavailability. We report a case of a woman in fifties with post-COVID-19 respiratory failure who successfully underwent lung transplantation, followed by improved bioavailability of ITCZ tablets when given with acidic lemon beverages. The patient was initially administered ITCZ oral solution; this was discontinued because of its unpleasant taste, nausea, and vomiting. The ITCZ oral solution was replaced with ITCZ tablets 78 days after transplantation; however, serum concentrations of ITCZ and hydroxy-ITCZ were below the detection limit (100 ng/mL). We co-administered ITCZ tablets with commercially available lemon beverages. Subsequently, serum concentrations of ITCZ and hydroxy-ITCZ increased to 341 and 673 ng/mL, respectively, on the 125th day after transplantation. Infection with fungi, including Aspergillus spp., was not observed in this case. The patient had no adverse events such as gastric ulcer or hyperglycemia. These results suggest that the co-administration of lemon beverages and ITCZ tablets may help achieve better absorption of ITCZ in patients taking acid suppressants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1203-1207
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Infection and Chemotherapy
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Aug
Externally publishedYes


  • Absorption
  • Itraconazole
  • Lemon beverage
  • Lung transplantation
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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