This work introduces a low-cost adhesive tape combined with a hydroxylamine/polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene oxide (HA/PVA/PEO) blend film to fabricate novel devices for improving sensitivity of gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) via two platforms: (1) LFIA device with integrated gold enhancement and (2) LFIA device with two independent sample inlets. The detection of ferritin has been used for proof-of-concept. The adhesive tape inserted in the devices assists to separate two solutions independently flowing from two different inlets toward a nitrocellulose membrane. On-device gold enhancement was achieved by the enlargement of AuNPs via the catalytic reaction of KAuCl4 and HA using the HA/PVA/PEO blend film easily prepared via a solution-casting technique, which could delay the flow of HA released from the film for 180s and improve storage stability of the device. Under optimal conditions evaluated by naked eyes, the gold enhancement (LOD = 0.5 ng/mL) and double-sample inlet (LOD = 2 ng/mL) devices exhibited 20-fold and fivefold higher sensitivity respectively than a conventional device, verifying the sensitivity improvement. Furthermore, the proposed device was successfully detected ferritin in human serum samples within 10 min via naked-eye observation, exhibiting rapidity and simplicity of use, and the capability to perform on-site assays.
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