In situ deposition rate monitoring during the three-stage-growth process of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber films

Ralf Hunger, Keiichiro Sakurai, Akimasa Yamada, Paul Fons, Kakuya Iwata, Koji Matsubara, Shigeru Niki

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


The controllability of the three-stage-growth process of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films was investigated, implementing two different substrate temperature monitoring channels simultaneously: (a) a thermocouple at the rear side of the substrate, and (b) a pyrometer, measuring the emission of heat radiation from the front surface of the growing film. By this setup not only the film composition, i.e. the relative incorporation rate of Cu and group III elements, but as well the absolute growth rate can be monitored on-line during growth. The heat radiation intensity during the first growth stage (deposition of (In,Ga)2Se3 precursor films) exhibits characteristic oscillations. The oscillation period is inversely proportional to the growth rate. The oscillations are caused by thickness interference effects of black body radiation within the growing film. By a simulation of the infrared emissivity, the refractive index nigs = 2.9 and absorption coefficient kigs = 0.2 of the growing film could be extracted. Employing our process, Mo/CIGS/CdS/ZnO/Al solar cells with an efficiency up to 16.4% could be realized.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-21
Number of pages6
JournalThin Solid Films
Publication statusPublished - 2003 May 1
Externally publishedYes
EventProceedings of Symposium B - Strasbourg, France
Duration: 2002 Jun 182002 Jun 21


  • Copper indium-gallium selenide
  • Deposition process control
  • Optical properties
  • Solar cells
  • Three-stage-process

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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