Inactivated influenza vaccine effectiveness and an analysis of repeated vaccination for children during the 2016/17 season

on behalf of the Keio Pediatric Influenza Research Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: We assessed the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in children 6 months to 15 years of age during the 2016/17 season. In addition, we estimated the impact of repeated vaccination in children on VE. Methods: Our study for VEs in preventing influenza and admission due to influenza were conducted according to a test-negative case-control design (TNCC) based on influenza rapid diagnostic test results. We also analyzed the VE by vaccine status in the current and previous seasons for the impact of repeated vaccination. Results: During the 2016/17 season, the quadrivalent IIV was used in Japan. The adjusted VE in preventing influenza illness was 38% (95% CI, 29–46) against influenza A and 39% (95% CI, 18–54) against influenza B. Infants showed no significant VE. The VE in preventing hospitalization was not demonstrated. For the analysis of repeated vaccination, the vaccine was effective only when immunization occurred in the current season. The children who were immunized in two consecutive seasons were more likely to develop influenza compared to those immunized in the current season only (odds ratio, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.05–2.38], adjusted odds ratio, 1.53 [95% CI, 0.99–2.35]). However, the odds ratio of repeated vaccination was not significant when the analysis excluded those who developed influenza in the previous season. Conclusions: VE in children in the 2016/17 season was similar to values previously reported. Repeated vaccination interfered with the VE against any influenza infection in the 2016/17 season. The results of our study suggest that decreased VE by repeat vaccination phenomenon was associated with immunity by influenza infection in the previous season. However, the influenza vaccine should be recommended every season for children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5510-5518
Number of pages9
Issue number37
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Sept 5


  • Children
  • Effectiveness
  • Hospitalization
  • Influenza vaccine
  • Repeated vaccination
  • Test-negative case control design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • General Veterinary
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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