Insole-Based Estimation of Vertical Ground Reaction Force Using One-Step Learning with Probabilistic Regression and Data Augmentation

Ryo Eguchi, Masaki Takahashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


An insole-based estimation of the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) is proposed as an alternative to costly force plates for the evaluation of pathological gait. However, machine learning techniques for estimation still rely on the use of force plates. Moreover, measuring plural walking steps in order to prevent overfitting induces fall risks and physically taxes the patients. Therefore, this paper presents an accessible and efficient learning scheme for the insole-based estimation of vGRF. In this system, we employ a low-cost scale as an alternative to force plates. Then, we use Gaussian process regression (GPR) to learn a model in order to estimate vGRF without overfitting of small-sized data sets corrupted by measurement errors and noise of the devices. In addition, we propose a 'one-step learning' scheme based on a probabilistic data augmentation. This approach augments actual measurements of a minimum (just one) walking step to a virtual data set for plural steps by considering their typical variability between steps. In experiments, the GPR models learned from two walking steps estimated vGRF with mean errors of 8% or under for entire/local magnitudes. Moreover, the learning from one step with probabilistic augmentation enhanced the estimation accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8713540
Pages (from-to)1217-1225
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun


  • Gait analysis
  • Gaussian process regression
  • Wii Balance Board
  • data augmentation
  • estimation
  • ground reaction force
  • instrumented insole
  • probabilistic machine learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Internal Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering


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