Interactions between Intestinal Homeostasis and NAD+ Biology in Regulating Incretin Production and Postprandial Glucose Metabolism

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3 Citations (Scopus)


The intestine has garnered attention as a target organ for developing new therapies for impaired glucose tolerance. The intestine, which produces incretin hormones, is the central regulator of glucose metabolism. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) production, which determines postprandial glucose levels, is regulated by intestinal homeostasis. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)-mediated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis in major metabolic organs such as the liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle plays a crucial role in obesity- and aging-associated organ derangements. Furthermore, NAMPT-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis in the intestines and its upstream and downstream mediators, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuins (SIRTs), respectively, are critical for intestinal homeostasis, including gut microbiota composition and bile acid metabolism, and GLP-1 production. Thus, boosting the intestinal AMPK–NAMPT–NAD+–SIRT pathway to improve intestinal homeostasis, GLP-1 production, and postprandial glucose metabolism has gained significant attention as a novel strategy to improve impaired glucose tolerance. Herein, we aimed to review in detail the regulatory mechanisms and importance of intestinal NAMPT-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis in regulating intestinal homeostasis and GLP-1 secretion in obesity and aging. Furthermore, dietary and molecular factors regulating intestinal NAMPT-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis were critically explored to facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies for postprandial glucose dysregulation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1494
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Mar


  • incretin
  • intestinal homeostasis
  • nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
  • nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase
  • postprandial glucose metabolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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