Interactions with DNA and RNA of three different proteins involved in the regulation of (1) transcription, (2) translation, and (3) telomere elongation were examined by NMR. In the first case, the combination of structural determination, dynamical analysis on the basis of relaxation data and identification of interactive surface for wild and phosphorylation-mimicking mutant proteins has given the insight on the increase of DNA-binding affinity through phosphorylation of the protein. In the second case, the arrangement of two tandem domains interacting with RNA has been determined with residual dipolar couplings and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement, which has given the idea on how the two tandem domains recognize the target RNA. In the third case, simultaneous binding of the other two tandem domains to both DNA and RNA has been analyzed with chemical shift perturbation analysis. The result has suggested that the protein composed of two tandem domains can recruit telomerase to telomere DNA.
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