We study Kelvin modes and translational zero modes excited along a quantized vortex and relativistic global string in superfluids and a relativistic field theory, respectively, by constructing the low-energy effective theory of these modes.We find that they become exact gapless Nambu-Goldstone modes only in a system with the infinite volume limit. On the other hand, in a system with finite volume, we find an imaginary massive gap causing tachyonic instability above some critical wavelength in the relativistic theory.We also find in the non-relativistic theory that Kelvin modes with wavelengths longer than some critical value propagate in the direction opposite to those with shorter length, contrary to conventional understanding. The number of Nambu-Goldstone modes also saturate the equality of the Nielsen-Chadha inequality for both relativistic and non-relativistic theories.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)