Kernel weighted least square approach for imputing missing values of metabolomics data

Nishith Kumar, M. A. Hoque, Masahiro Sugimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Mass spectrometry is a modern and sophisticated high-throughput analytical technique that enables large-scale metabolomic analyses. It yields a high-dimensional large-scale matrix (samples × metabolites) of quantified data that often contain missing cells in the data matrix as well as outliers that originate for several reasons, including technical and biological sources. Although several missing data imputation techniques are described in the literature, all conventional existing techniques only solve the missing value problems. They do not relieve the problems of outliers. Therefore, outliers in the dataset decrease the accuracy of the imputation. We developed a new kernel weight function-based proposed missing data imputation technique that resolves the problems of missing values and outliers. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method and other conventional and recently developed missing imputation techniques using both artificially generated data and experimentally measured data analysis in both the absence and presence of different rates of outliers. Performances based on both artificial data and real metabolomics data indicate the superiority of our proposed kernel weight-based missing data imputation technique to the existing alternatives. For user convenience, an R package of the proposed kernel weight-based missing value imputation technique was developed, which is available at

Original languageEnglish
Article number11108
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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